1Pe 1:1 Kepha, an apostle of Yahushua the Messiah, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
These strangers are called "elect". This is Israel in exile. Judah wasn't fully dispersed until 20 years later.
A literal translation (See Green's Interlinear) of verse 1 would be "Peter, an Apostle of Yahshua HaMoshiach, to the elect sojourners of the dispersion of Pontus, Galatia, ...". These are all places where Israel was scattered. These provinces are south of the Black Sea. This is also the area that many who were in Jerusalem for Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit fell, came from. They were Hebrews from the ten tribes that had been carried away into Assyria in 721 B.C.
1Pe 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of YHWH the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Yahushua the Messiah: Favour unto you, and peace, be multiplied.
This is addressed to the "elect" sojourner of the "diaspora" or dispersion. They are Israelites in exile. Strongs # 1290 "diaspora" says it is a converted Israelite resident in a gentile country. Interestingly, the root of diaspora, speir (speiro, Strong’s #4687), relates to “Jezreel.” It means, “to sow or scatter seed.”
In saying this, Peter was letting the recipients of the letter along with all believers know that they were all part of Israel, as only the twelve tribes of Israel were sprinkled by the blood at Mount Sinai.
Exo 24:7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that YHWH hath said will we do, and be obedient.
Exo 24:8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which YHWH hath made with you concerning all these words.
1Pe 1:3 Blessed be the El and Father of our Master Yahushua the Messiah, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Yahushua the Messiah from the dead,
1Pe 1:4 To an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you,
That need not mean we have to go there to get it; it is just kept in a place where no earthly ills can affect it,
Nothing in Scripture says any human being will be in Heaven forever--only that we can be with Yahweh forever. Earth will be our habitation.
“the heavens are Yahweh’s, but the earth He has given to the sons of men." (Psa 115:16)
1Pe 1:5 Who are kept by the power of YHWH through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
Salvation is a process, not a one time event. The Renewed Covenant is not yet totally in effect. It will be ratified when Yahshua returns and drinks the last cup of redemption of the Passover ceremony with us at the wedding supper of the lamb in the Millennial kingdom. Then we will have the Torah written upon our hearts and need no man teach us, for we shall all know Him from the least to the greatest.
1Pe 2:8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.
This was spoken of YHWH in Isa 8:14.
Isa 8:14 And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
This was the pre-incarnate Yahshua, who we are told in John 1 created the world and everything in it. He is not YHWH the Father, but is YHWH the Son. This can be proven by looking at the passage in Zechariah 12:10. There are also many other scriptures that prove this too. There are just too many to recount at this time in this message.
Zec 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of favour and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and she will be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.
YHWH the Father could not be pierced. He is a spirit.
1Pe 2:9 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light:
Exo 19:6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.
Now let's find out who these gentiles are that Peter is writing to.
This was a promise made to Israel in Exo 19:6 that if they would obey YHWH's voice and keep His "Covenant", they would be a special treasure to Him above all the people of the earth, a kingdom of priests and a set apart nation. Peter is equating these returning gentiles with Israel.
1Pe 2:10 Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of YHWH: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.
Where have we heard this before? This is the Lo-Ami (not a people) and Lo-ruhamah(no mercy) of Hosea 1:7 and 9.
This was spoken to the prophet Hosea by Yahweh concerning Ephraim (Israel). Peter is equating the returning gentiles to the lost tribes or lost sheep of the House of Israel. Paul did the same thing in Romans 9:25-26 . See also Zech 10:6.
1Pe 2:25 For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.
These are the other sheep not of this fold spoken of by Yahshua in John 10:16; Mat 10:6; and Mat 15:24. They are the lost sheep of the House of Israel. Returned is "Epistrepho" in Greek and means returning. Not coming for the first time, they were returning to Yahweh. See also Acts 15:19 and 1 Th 1:9.
This letter written by Peter was to the lost sheep of the House of Israel who were scattered into all the world. This letter was sent to those in various provinces in Asia Minor where some of them were known to have been scattered. James also wrote a letter to the "dispersed" as we read from James 1:1
Jam 1:1 James, a servant of YHWH and of the Master Yahushua the Messiah, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.
The third place this word is used in the New Testament is in John 7:35.
Joh 7:35 Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?
More information can be found in my free download of my book called "Study of the Two House Restoration of Israel". It is on my website Emetyahshua.com which you can reach from this blog.